People who defect from Cuba lose their home country; and even people who go on an extended trip can lose their citizenship to the country. After 11 months outside of Cuba, citizens of the country are no longer welcome back. This has since been increased to 24 months, but the policy is a massive breach of human rights.
Many Cubans that do defect from the country attempt the dangerous trek to Florida by boat However, according to Mexican immigration records, this decision may be losing popularity.
Mexico records show that roughly 2,300 Cuban immigrants have been detained attempting to enter the U.S. -- and they expect the number to climb to around 3,500. Given that all of last year only 762 Cuban immigrants were detained, the five-fold increase of this type of immigration will certainly have officials in both Mexico and the U.S. on alert.
The way most of these Cuban immigrants make the journey is by embarking for a country like Ecuador, which does not check their visas. From there, the Cuban immigrants travel north to the U.S. Mexico border, usually without much trouble.
Cuban defectors are eligible for a special status once they reach the United States. A law, called the Cuban Adjustment Act, affords Cuban immigrants a chance to get on the fast track to permanent residence. This is by no means a guarantee for every immigrant, but it can happen. It is important to note that, even in the presence of this law, there is still a strict cap on the number of visas that can be handed out to Cuban immigrants.
Source: ABC News, "Number of Cubans Entering the U.S. Through Mexico Up 400 Percent," Esteban Roman, Oct. 19, 2012